As illustrated on the WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health 2014, the prevalence of HED varies between countries. Literature review points that HED is more predominant in the northern, western and eastern parts of Europe that in the southern parts (WHO, 2014; Kuntsche et al., 2004; Bartoli et al., 2014). In the northern countries the main drinking pattern is heavy drinking on the weekends (mainly beers and spirits), while, traditionally, the Mediterranean drinking cultures are known as being moderated. In southern Europe alcohol consumption is embedded in the everyday life. Wine is the main alcoholic beverage, being moderately in a daily basis during the meals. This drinking pattern – known as Mediterranean drinking pattern – brings social benefits, is adaptive and even healthy within the Mediterranean diet (León-Muñoz et al., 2014). These facts highlight culture as a relevant variable to consider when analysing the local and global drinking patterns and, at the same time, suggests that countries that traditionally cohabite with alcohol and its consumption is more accepted are less likely to manifest HED patterns (Kuntsche et al., 2004). Nevertheless, HED is growing and becoming more common in Southern Europe (Bartoli et al., 2014) and, over time, differences across countries are diminishing mainly because of changes in the type of beverages typically consumed. Increasingly, it is possible to find, in the different countries several kinds of alcoholic beverages, beyond the more typical ones. This growing diversity in the supply of alcoholic beverages has a direct impact in the traditional drinking patterns. “Geographical differences in the types of alcohol consumed are diminishing, and so are differences in drinking patterns, especially in Europe, were HED is no longer a peculiarity of northern countries, and drinking habits are becoming more homogeneous throughout the continent (Devaux & Sassi, 2015:51)”. In their research about the Mediterranean drinking pattern in Spain, León-Muñoz et al. (2014) suggest that the drinking habits are changing – the consumption of wine is declining while the consumption of beer has been increasing. The authors argue that these changes are related with a progressive transformation of life conditions and food habits, over the last 50 years, induced by historical and sociological dimensions as socioeconomic development, the migration from rural to urban areas, the globalization of the food market, etc. Solei-Vila et al. (2014) analysed the HED prevalence in Spain between 2008 and 2010 concluding that new drinking patterns are emerging among the youth. HED rates are increasing in Spain, especially in urban areas, mainly because of the spread of 2 drinking behaviours, namely “botellón” (goups of young people socializing and drinking alcohol in public spaces) and “preloading” (intake of alcohol at home, before going to a party setting). “While still common among adults, daily moderate wine drinking with meals among teenagers and young adults has been replaced in this last decade with weekend consumption of beer, spirits straight or mixed with sodas, or wine mixed with colas (i.e., calimocho), usually in excessive amounts, with BD (binge drinking) being the norm” (2014:811). So far most alcohol-related research was done in North Europe, however, more research is needed in southern Europe in order to analyse the prevalence of HED and changing drinking patterns. Despite the differences across the southern Europe and other European parts, WHO (2014) shows that there are also differences among the Mediterranean countries. Considering the countries involved in this project (Portugal, Spain and Italy), there are significant differences in the prevalence of HED, both in the categories “general population” and “drinkers only” (WHO, 2014). Italy is the country with the lowest prevalence of HED (“population”=4.2%; “drinkers only”=6.2%), in Spain the prevalence is higher (“population”=13.4%; “drinkers only”=19.6%), and Portugal presents the highest HED prevalence (“population”=20.4; “drinkers only”= 35.8) approaching some north European countries like the United Kingdom. Considering this, it is also fundamental to implement comparative research among southern European countries in order to signalize the variables and contextual factors (for examples, culture, national policies, etc.) that contribute to these discrepancies in the HED prevalence in Southern Europe.